Visual Impairment is the functional limitation of the eye or eyes or the visual system. Approximately 161 million people globally aged 12 years and above could improve their vision through proper refractive correction. The leading causes of blindness and low vision are age-related eye diseases such as:

  1. Cataracts – clouded lenses.
  2. Optic nerve disorders, including glaucoma.
  3. Retinal disorders – problems with the nerve layer at the back of the eye.
  4. Macular degeneration – a disease that destroys sharp, central vision.
  5. Diabetic eye problems.

Other common eye disorders include: Dry Eyes, Allergies, Keratoconus (a condition in which the cornea bulges outward) and Vision Conditions (Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism, Amblyopia, Presbyopia, Emmetropia)

Signs and Symptoms of possible vision problems

Many eye diseases have no early symptoms. They may be painless and may have no change in vision until the disease has become quite advanced. However, experiencing any of the following eye changes would be the best time to schedule an appointment with an optometrist immediately.

  • Severe, sudden pain in or around the eye.
  • Hazy, blurred or double vision.
  • Seeing floating “spider webs.
  • Seeing a “curtain coming down” over one eye.
  • Seeing rainbows or halos around the light.
  • Sensing a “cup filling up with ink” in one eye.
  • Unusual, even painful, sensitivity to light or glare.
  • Changes in the color of the iris.
  • Sudden development of persistent floaters.
  • Itching, burning, or a heavy discharge in the eye.


Visual Impairment - Causes, Symptoms, and Preventions
Vision problems

Diagnosis and Tests

The quality of vision may deteriorate as a result of age or disease. The single best way to protect vision is through regular professional eye examinations. Early detection and treatment could prevent vision problems and possible blindness.

Ideally, the eye examination consists of the following tests, none of which will cause the patient pain or discomfort:

  • Visual Acuity Test: Performed with the Snellen chart, which is organized as a series of lines populated by random letters that decrease in size from top of the chart to the bottom. This test helps to determine refractive errors such as are myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.
  • Eye Movement and Peripheral Vision Tests: During this test an object, usually a small light is moved through the patient’s field of vision. Loss of peripheral vision can be a sign of serious disorder in the eye or brain.
  • Color Blindness Test: Multicolor dots arranged in patterns to form specific numbers and letters are used to test color blindness. Common disability of severely colorblind people is that they find it difficult to interpret traffic signals.
  • Tonometry Test: This test is performed with a slit lamp- a type of microscope with a light attached to it, specifically designed to give the doctor a magnified view of the anterior eye structure.
  • Ophthalmoscopy: During this part of an eye exam the pupil is dilated with dilating eye drops which allow the doctor to examine the inside of the eye through an ophthalmoscope, another type of microscope.

A complete eye exam usually takes only about an hour. A single hour spent every one to two years is the best defense against any visual impairment.


  • Eat healthy and balanced diet, incorporate fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids in the diet and consider supplementing eye vitamins.
  • Protect eyes from harmful ultraviolet rays, wear sunglasses during the daytime.
  • Quit smoking, people who smoke are at a greater risk of developing macular degeneration, cataract etc.
  • Get a comprehensive eye examination done at least every two years.


Visual impairment has profound human and socioeconomic consequences in all societies. Worldwide. For each person who becomes blind due to an eye disease, an average of 3.4 people have low vision. Early diagnosis helps the doctor to cure or treat and even prevent permanent vision impairment. While the early signs of serious eye disorder may be invisible to the patient, they are often easily detectable through the test performed by an Optometrist.

We recommend visiting Dr. Durocher of OPMT (Optometric Physicians of Middle Tennessee). He is one of the highly trained and trusted Lebanon Optometrist, focused on maintaining the health and development of your eyes with preventative care and treatment. He believes that individualized care is the key to treat each unique eye. His dedication towards serving the patient in a happier and healthier way has helped him to set the difference. While performing an exam he lets you know what he is doing and why it is important for your eye care.

Dr. Durocher is continuously striving towards achieving sustainable, comprehensive and high-quality eye care system to strengthen your health. He is the most experienced Optometrist in Lebanon. He has achieved leadership in successful elimination of avoidable blindness and low vision.

His initiatives have strengthened the equitable eye-care system. He understands his patients, which allows him to persuade and instruct them in the most positive way. You can truly enjoy customized service optimized exclusively for your eyes with Dr. Durocher, The best Eye Doctor in Lebanon.